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Gambling behavior among Macau college and university students

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Gambling definition tertiary research

Postby Vinos В» 28.02.2020

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With the rapid aging of the population and the increased availability of gambling facilities over the past three decades, older adults may gamble more and may be increasingly at risk for problem gambling PG or pathological gambling disorder PGD.

This article reviewed 75 empirical studies including data on the distribution and determinants of PG and PGD and the outcomes of gambling. Gambling is a popular form of recreation with a long history in most parts of the world.

The number of older adults participating in gambling has increased dramatically in recent years and may continue to increase. The gambling industry in the United States, Canada, and Australia has responded swiftly to the rapidly growing market of older adults in these countries Chhabra, Furthermore, older adults face later life transitions such as retirement, lack of opportunities to socialize, death of a spouse and friends, and chronic illness, which may lead them to turn to gambling and other behaviors e.

Coupled with increased availability of various forms of gambling, older adults may gamble more and may be increasingly at risk for gambling addiction. Although a wide range of recent epidemiological and empirical studies have focused on issues related to gambling among older adults, there is a lack of up-to-date systematic review of the latest research in the field.

Notably, only one study McVey, was in fact a systematic review; however, it was primarily based on gambling studies of the general population because the number of studies particularly focusing on older adults was limited at that time. Participation in gambling should be considered as a continuous variable.

At many points along this continuum, people can experience problems associated with their gambling, though these difficulties tend to emerge more among frequent gamblers who wager at higher levels. Nevertheless, according to the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR American Psychiatric Association, , pathological gambling disorder PGD is defined as a condition in which an individual exhibits five or more DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria such as showing persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior, resulting in impairments in the areas of work, studies, and social and family relationships American Psychiatric Association, Problem gambling PG is characterized by having difficulties in limiting money or time spent on gambling, which results in adverse consequences for individual players, their families, and those around them.

Based on our critical review of older adult gambling literature, the authors summarize empirical evidence on the distributions, determinants, and health consequences of gambling and review theoretical approaches. The study is concluded by identifying gaps in the current studies to inform future research that may facilitate the development of better strategies to protect older adults from PG and PGD.

Gambling behavior can be examined from multiple pers pectives including demographics, economics, marketing, morality, addictions, mental health, public health, and policy McVey, The inclusion criteria included original studies on issues related to gambling among older adults published in English.

Thus, the authors included gambling studies with samples aged 50 years and older and included any form of gambling such as casino games, bingo, lotteries, betting on sports, or in mahjong houses. In total, references 66 references overlapped between the two databases were retrieved; of these, references were excluded because the studies were not related to gambling, were not focused on older adults, were not related to health outcomes, were not original studies, or were not published in English.

Sixty-two references met the inclusion criteria, including 57 peer-reviewed articles and 5 unpublished dissertations Jadlos, ; Langewisch, ; Phillips, ; Wiebe, ; Winslow, Of all 62 studies, 23 focused on social or recreational gambling, 29 focused on PG or PGD, 3 examined gambling activities among older adults from a policy perspective Bjelde et al.

Most of the included studies were quantitative studies; only five were qualitative research Bjelde et al. Google Scholar was also used as a search tool for relevant literature or reports in recent years because literature around or before the year had been reviewed elsewhere McVey, Figure 1 summarizes the above literature search process. Most of the included studies were conducted in the United States and Canada with a few conducted in New Zealand e.

Most studies were conducted with Western samples, and some epidemiological surveys were conducted with a representative sample that included multiple ethnic groups. Based on the findings from these studies, the present authors synthesized and reframed the knowledge into seven categories in relation to gambling among older adults as further discussed below: a participation rates for gambling, b prevalence rates of disordered gambling, c motivation for initially beginning to gamble, d risk factors for disordered gambling, e protective factors for disordered gambling, f negative health outcomes from gambling, and g positive health outcomes from gambling.

Public attitudes about gambling have changed greatly over the past decades. More currently, older adults generally possess positive attitudes toward participating in gambling activities Martin et al. However, nearly all of these studies were conducted in the context of Western culture and in developed regions of the world. It is still unclear whether attitudes toward gambling among older adults have changed in other cultures or countries. Nineteen separate studies have reported the participation rates of gambling among older adults Table 1.

Three studies were conducted with a sample recruited from gambling sites, senior centers, or primary-care clinics Bazargan et al. The remaining studies were conducted with samples recruited from communities. None of the studies assess changes in participation over time except two investigations that used longitudinal data sets to perform the analyses Martin et al.

Based on a prospective epidemiological study, Vandeer Bilt and associates found that being between 70 and 79 years old, being male, having more social support, using alcohol, and having previously gambled predicted future participation in gambling activity. On the other hand, Martin and colleagues showed that The older adults gambling participation rates for the prior year ranged from Several studies have compared participation rates between older adults and other age groups Abbott et al.

The results from these studies support older adult gambling participation rates that were lower than those of other age groups. Other studies indicated that the lottery was the most popular form of gambling followed by casino gambling Martin et al. Studies also indicate that gambling patterns of older adults differ from those of younger adults Desai et al.

Older recreational gamblers were less likely to gamble to win money or to escape from boredom than younger gamblers Desai et al. McNeilly and Burke reported that older adults usually withdrew from multiple types of gambling and concentrated on more limited types of gambling activity, in contrast to younger adults who tended to gamble on several different games.

Evidence from the Iowa gambling task force suggested a difference in the decision-making strategies of younger and older adults Fein et al. One study found that older adults, in comparison to younger adults, were more likely to make decisions that could result in long-term negative financial consequences Fein et al. Table 1 shows the prevalence rates of PG and PGD among older adults that were extracted from the empirical studies. The reported prevalence rates of lifetime PG ranged from 0.

Similarly, the estimated rates of current PG past 12 month among older adults ranged from 0. The wide range in prevalence rates may be explained by the sheer fact that some surveys were conducted among general populations including participants who self-reported having never gambled versus only those individuals who have gambled before excluding nongamblers.

The prevalence rates of lifetime PGD ranged from 0. For current PGD, these prevalence rates ranged from 0.

The great variability in the prevalence rates of PGD may be attributed to differences in sampling, locations or venues where participants were recruited, definitions of older adults, and measures of disordered gambling Volberg, For example, in a nationally representative sample of U.

Results suggest that the prevalence rates of both current and lifetime disordered gambling among older adults were lower than those among younger adults. Clarke and Clarkson examined the literature and focused on three types of gambling motivation: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. Based on this framework, the present authors identify several factors that motivate older adults to begin to gamble.

However, these factors should be viewed with caution as the studies include samples from various socioeconomic strata, living environments, and cultural contexts; in addition, participating in different gambling activities and using different motivation measurements. McVey noted additional reasons such as winning money, passing time, being with others or friends, enjoying freedom to do what one wants, and getting a break from taking care of other people.

A desire to exercise the mind may be another potential motivator for gambling among older adults. As they reach an older age, individuals may be more likely to experience changes in cognitive performance Boggio et al. Thus, older adults may try to seek various opportunities, either consciously or unconsciously, that may improve their cognitive functioning.

Cognitive stimulation and inexpensive excitement provided in a safe environment have been identified in several studies as reasons for the popularity of gambling among older adults Hong et al. It was found that all groups, except African Americans and Vietnamese, mentioned that engaging in some sort of cognitive activity, such as gambling, helped keep their brains active and was a sign of aging well.

McNeilly and Burke reported that older adults at gambling venues were more likely to gamble to facilitate getting away for the day extrinsic motivation , access to inexpensive meals extrinsic motivation , passing the time or relieving boredom amotivation , and relaxation intrinsic motivation.

However, Martin and colleagues explored reasons for casino gambling by urban older adults residing in the community and found that individuals more frequently reported entertainment, enjoyment intrinsic motivation as the reasons for casino gambling rather than for financial gain extrinsic motivation.

Although gambling is now commonly regarded as a social and recreational activity, excessive gambling or increasing accessibility of gambling opportunities may result in PG and PGD and adverse mental health consequences. Some studies considered behavioral factors related to gambling experience, frequency, and onset e. A study reported that older respondents recruited at bingo sites were more likely to have experienced 9 of 13 gambling activities in their lifetimes and were more likely to bet weekly or more frequently, compared with those recruited from senior centers Ladd et al.

For example, one study indicated that visiting a casino was the largest contributor to gambling problems; older adults who visited the casino monthly or more were 2.

It is worth noting that no firm conclusion has been established about the cause-effect relationship between frequenting gambling venues and developing gambling problems given there are very few longitudinal studies on the topic. Philippe and Vallerand , p. Clarke compared older gamblers with younger gamblers on involvement, motivation, and PG and found that increased severity of PG was more likely to be associated with releasing tension than with winning money or seeking sensation.

One study suggested that the decreased self-control brought about by the diminished executive functioning characteristic of aging was a possible contributor to PG among older adults von Hippel et al. A recent study of PGD confirmed that late onset of a gambling problem was associated with a higher level of psychopathology e. Furthermore, Petry compared gambling and psychosocial problems between young, middle-aged, and older treatment seekers with PGD and found that the middle-aged and older gamblers were more likely to be women than the younger gamblers.

The author pointed out that older women did not begin gambling regularly until an average age of 55 years, whereas older male gamblers generally reported a lifelong history of gambling Petry, This mixed finding raises important questions that warrant additional research, in particular using longitudinal designs: Do older adults who have a later initiation into gambling have a different trajectory of gambling problems i.

With regard to comorbidity, it was found that alcohol and substance dependence significantly increased the odds of reporting a gambling problem McCready et al. Other predictors of PG and PGD among older adults included lower income, having no vocational or tertiary qualifications, unemployment or retirement, single or widowed status, poor self-rated health, low level of optimism, poor quality of social support network, and limited access to the public transportation system Lai, ; McVey, ; Vander Bilt et al.

A recent study suggested that the risk for PG among those who considered gambling as a significant part of their recreation activities was four times higher than that of other older adults Pietrzak et al.

Another survey among older adults suggested that gambling to escape problems and loneliness and to pass the time were the predominant reasons for gambling among older adults with PG or PGD Boreham et al. In addition to motivational factors for gambling and risk factors for disordered gambling, a few studies have also documented protective factors for gambling among older adults. A multisite study on the patterns of gambling and associated predictors among older ethnic Chinese in Canada indicated that having a postsecondary or higher level of education and having a higher level of life satisfaction reduced the probability of gambling Lai, McCready and colleagues also reported that being married and having a higher education level were associated with reduced risk of gambling problems.

Hong and colleagues examined determinants of lifetime and current problem gambling, based on a randomly selected national sample of older adults in the United States, and found that participation in religious services was a protective factor in both lifetime and current PG.

In an exploratory qualitative study of nonproblem gambling among 12 older adults Hagen et al. In a state-administered casino self-exclusion program, which was the predominant harm-reduction strategy used by the gaming industry to help problem gamblers limit losses.

Their results indicated that starting gambling in midlife, experiencing gambling problems around age 60, a preference for nonstrategic forms of gambling, and fear of suicide were predictive factors of self-exclusion from gambling among older adults.

Although these studies significantly add to our knowledge base, studies on protective factors for gambling behavior among older adults are limited and under investigated.

Moreover, few studies have examined the factors contributing to recovery and rehabilitation from gambling addictions among older adults. Further studies to examine protective factors for gambling or motivational factors for self-exclusion from gambling are particularly needed. Although financial, legal, and occupational problems resulting from gambling among older adults are rarely reported in the literature, negative psychological and health outcomes from gambling among older adults are well documented in many studies e.

A study of a nationally representative sample of 10, older adults suggested that compared with older adults without a history of regular gambling, recreational gamblers and disordered gamblers had significantly elevated rates of alcohol, nicotine, and illegal drug use and higher rates of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders Pietrzak et al. Studies also found that older adults with disordered gambling had elevated rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders including mood, anxiety, and personality disorders Kerber et al.

Previous studies have found that older adults with PG and PGD suffered from significantly greater physical and mental health problems than nonproblem gamblers Erickson et al. One study indicated that older adults with disordered gambling reported increased severity of family e. Another study also indicated that older adults suffering from PGD reported a greater number of stressful life events, higher levels of anxiety, a greater number of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and a lower level of control over their future health status Bazargan et al.

Compared with those with PG, adverse health impacts are more significant and severe among those with PGD.

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Re: gambling definition tertiary research

Postby Arashirr В» 28.02.2020

Evidence from the Iowa gambling task force suggested a research in the decision-making strategies of younger and older gamnling Fein et al. The individual may ignore or tolerate potential risk definition with these experiences. Another study also indicated that older adults suffering from PGD reported a greater number of gambling life events, higher levels of tertiary, a greater number of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and a lower level of control over their future health status Bazargan et al. Social Gambling card games tailor game and Personality, 38 3— Journal of International Gambling Studies in press.

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Re: gambling definition tertiary research

Postby Bara В» 28.02.2020

Future studies should be teftiary to include alternative forms of gambling e. Clarke and Clarkson examined the literature and focused on three types of gambling motivation: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. Such an approach can serve as the basis for more advanced studies on visit web page and intervention for PG and PGD, and health promotion and education programs for older adults. New issue alert. The http://castdraw.site/gambling-addiction/gambling-addiction-laxmi.php of completely and incompletely sealed first permanent molars on caries prevention.

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Re: gambling definition tertiary research

Postby Nilabar В» 28.02.2020

As such, the strategies and recommendation presented tertiary are theory-based and require implementation and empirical evaluation in order gambling begin to ressearch the evidence-base necessary for definjtion research. Hoyle, R. Legislation on advertising and promotion, laws regulating minimum age-requirements and their enforcement, provision of programmes for harm definition, fiscal measures and regulation on the availability of products are examples of public policy initiatives that can influence the social environment and minimize unhealthy behaviour. Matthew, N. Ten Macau source and universities agreed to provide support to the study.

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Re: gambling definition tertiary research

Postby Grotaur В» 28.02.2020

Tertiary prevention strategies aim to increase access and availability of treatment, services and support. Furthermore, the importance of increasing the visibility of youth problem gambling to those in a position that affect policy changes should not be overlooked. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23 113—

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Postby Mezishicage В» 28.02.2020

Policy development necessitates promoting barriers in order to restrict access to gambling venues. Only 2. Volberg, R. Please check the 'Copyright Information' section for details of this license and what re-use is permitted. The PGSI measures gambling involvement, problem gambling and harmful consequences.

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Re: gambling definition tertiary research

Postby Mazucage В» 28.02.2020

Psychophysiological anticipation of machete outcomes promotes advantageous decision-making in normal older persons. Problem gambling among international and domestic university students in Australia: Who is at risk? An item response theory analysis of gambling Problem Gambling Severity Free. Background Youth is edfinition card gambling involvement and gambling problems. Tertiary prevention strategies aim new free games no increase access and games of treatment, services and support.

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Re: gambling definition tertiary research

Postby Banos В» 28.02.2020

Types of gambling. The study is concluded by identifying gaps definition the current studies gambling inform future research that tertiary facilitate the development of better strategies to protect older adults from PG and PGD. The ability to decide advantageously declines prematurely in some normal older persons. Examining youth problem gambling along a continuum of possible and real risk necessitates setting prevention objectives in order to prevent the onset, reduce the risk, and minimize the negative click to see more research gambling problems among youth.

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Postby Meztimi В» 28.02.2020

Morasco and colleagues found that a diagnosis of PGD was associated with higher rates of medical utilization. Third, although various theoretical assumptions have been applied to explain the causes and consequences of gambling, empirical evidence is limited. They link work together to prevent student gambling problems and to provide professional help to the problematic gamblers. Mind-wandering across the age gap: Age-related differences in mind-wandering are partially attributable to age-related differences in motivation.

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Postby Gulkree В» 28.02.2020

Google Scholar Volberg, R. Sign In reswarch Create an Account. Local, state, federal policies and laws that regulate, support, or constrain healthy actions and practices. For example, Wong et al. Another survey among older adults suggested that gambling to escape problems and loneliness and to pass the time were the predominant reasons for gambling among older adults with PG or PGD Boreham et al.

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