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Gambling definition

The Association Between Video Gaming and Psychological Functioning

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Gambling definition solitude summary

Postby Kenris В» 25.02.2020

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Video gaming is an extremely popular leisure-time activity with more than two billion users worldwide Newzoo, However, the media as well as professionals have underscored the potential dangers of excessive video gaming. Results revealed a medium-sized negative correlation between problematic video gaming and psychological functioning with regard to psychological symptoms, affectivity, coping, and self-esteem.

Future studies are needed to examine whether these psychological health risks reflect the causes or consequences of video gaming. Video gaming is a very popular leisure activity among adults Pew Research Center, The amount of time spent playing video games has increased steadily, from 5. Video gaming is known to have some benefits such as improving focus, multitasking, and working memory, but it may also come with costs when it is used heavily. By spending a predominant part of the day gaming, excessive video gamers are at risk of showing lower educational and career attainment, problems with peers, and lower social skills Mihara and Higuchi, On the one hand, video game use is widespread, and it may come with certain precursors as well as consequences.

On the other hand, little is known about the relations between various video gaming habits and psychological functioning.

This study aims to shed light on these important relations using a large sample. In the last few years, the amount of scientific research devoted to video game playing has increased e. Most scientific studies in this area of research have focused on the extent of video game play and its diverse correlates. While some researchers have emphasized the benefits of game playing and even suggested a therapeutic use of video games Primack et al.

It also includes such issues as craving, loss of control, and negative consequences of excessive gaming. While it is still a matter of debate whether problematic video game play should be considered a behavioral addiction , its status as a mental disorder has been clarified since the release of the DSM-5 in Generally, this decision has been supported by many researchers e. Researchers have criticized the selection of diagnostic criteria and the vague definition of the Internet Gaming Disorder construct, which excludes offline games from being related to addictive use e.

Several studies, literature reviews, and meta-analyses have focused on the correlates of problematic video gaming, usually assessed as a continuum with addiction marking the upper end of the scale e.

The degree of addictive video game use has been found to be related to personality traits such as low self-esteem Ko et al. Potential consequences of video game use have been identified as well, such as a lack of real-life friends Kowert et al. Effect sizes have varied widely across studies Ferguson et al.

There seem to be sex and age differences with regard to video gaming behavior: potentially problematic video gaming was found to be more likely among males than females e. In addition to looking at problematic video game use and its relation to psychological functioning, it is relevant to also focus on why individuals play video games. Players use video games for very different reasons Ryan et al. Potentially problematic video gaming has been found to be related to various reasons for playing such as coping and escape Hussain and Griffiths, ; Schneider et al.

Coping Laconi et al. Mixed results emerged concerning age differences Greenberg et al. Besides investigating the links between potentially problematic video game use and psychological functioning as well as between reasons for playing video games and psychological functioning, it is relevant to also look at which game genres individuals prefer.

Correlates of preferences for certain game genres e. Males were shown to prefer action and strategy games, whereas females showed a preference for games of skill Scharkow et al.

Younger gamers seemed to prefer action games, older players more so games of skill Scharkow et al. However, it is not yet understood to what extent preferences for certain video game genres are differentially related to psychological functioning.

Typically, research has focused merely on violent video games e. In the present study, our objective was to examine the relation between video gaming and psychological functioning in a fine-grained manner. For this purpose, we examined psychological functioning by employing various variables such as psychological symptoms, coping strategies, and social support.

Likewise, we assessed video gaming in a similarly detailed way, ranging from a problematic video game use, b the reasons for playing, to c the preferred game genres. This strategy prevented us from making potentially invalid generalizations about video gaming in general and allowed us to examine the spectrum of gaming habits and the respective relations between such habits and a diverse set of variables representing psychological functioning.

Playing video games excessively should be appealing to individuals with poor psychological functioning because games allow people to avoid their everyday problems and instead immerse themselves in another environment Taquet et al. Moreover, video games offer people a chance to connect with other people socially despite any more or less evident psychological problems they may have Kowert et al.

On the other hand, potentially problematic video game use may also lead to psychological problems because it reduces the amount of time and the number of opportunities gamers have to practice real-life behavior Gentile, Thus, we expected to find a negative correlation between problematic video gaming and variables representing psychological functioning such that we expected more potentially problematic video game use to be related to dysfunctional coping strategies Wood and Griffith, , negative affectivity Mathiak et al.

Finally, we aimed to shed light on the unique contribution of each measure of psychological functioning to the prediction of problematic video game use. The distribution of participants with regard to sex and age mirrors the findings of past research with males and younger individuals being more likely to play video games e. We posted links to our online questionnaire on various online forums as well as on popular online game sites. To achieve heterogeneity of the sample, no exclusion criteria other than having access to the Internet and understanding German were specified.

Based on the DSM criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder tolerance, craving, loss of control, emotion regulation, withdrawal, and unsuccessful attempts to cut back , this standardized self-report scale consists of 15 items usually with a five-point scale ranging from 1 never to 5 very often.

Gamers indicated how often they played video games for certain reasons. They rated each of 10 reasons separately on Likert scales ranging from 1 never to 4 very often. Gamers were asked how often they usually played various video game subgenres such as first-person shooter, round-based strategy, massively multiplayer online role-playing games MMORPGs , life simulations, and others.

Ratings were made on Likert scales ranging from 1 never to 4 very often. Descriptive statistics and intercorrelations for all measures including sex and age are presented in Supplementary Tables S1—S4.

Participants provided ratings of their psychological functioning on the following constructs:. The 9 items were answered on 5-point Likert-type scales ranging from 1 do not agree at all to 5 agree completely. The two items per subscale were administered on 5-point Likert-type scales ranging from 1 never to 5 very often.

We measured general affect as a trait and affect during video gaming as a state using the German version Krohne et al. On a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 not at all to 5 completely , participants rated the intensity of 20 adjectives. The measure for the assessment of shyness in adults Asendorpf, consists of 5 items that were answered on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 not at all to 5 completely.

The 4 items were answered on 5- to 6-point Likert-type scales. A item measure of preference for solitude Nestler et al. Participants answered a one-item life satisfaction measure on a 4-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 not at all to 4 completely. The 10 items were answered on a 4-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 not at all to 4 completely. We administered a item generalized self-efficacy scale Schwarzer and Jerusalem, , which was answered on a 4-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 not at all to 4 completely.

The 8 items were answered on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 not at all to 5 completely. Due to left-skewed distributions, we logarithmized the data before aggregation. Participants reported their grade point average. German grades are assessed on a scale that ranges from 1 excellent to 6 insufficient. Thus, higher scores indicate worse grades. Participants further reported their sex and age.

Both were used as control variables in further analyses. In a first step, we computed zero-order correlations between the video gaming variables and the measures of psychological functioning. In a second step, we computed partial correlations in which we controlled for sex and age because past research has repeatedly shown that sex and age are correlated with both video gaming Homer et al.

Finally, we explored the unique contribution of each measure of psychological functioning to the prediction of potentially problematic video gaming. Therefore, we computed regressions with potentially problematic video gaming as the dependent variable and sex, age, and the measures of psychological functioning as predictors entered simultaneously into the regression equation.

By employing this procedure, we were able to determine the effect that each variable had over and above the other ones. For instance, we could identify whether general psychopathology was predictive of potentially problematic video game use when the influence of all other variables e. Additionally, we included analyses regarding sex and age differences in the link between video gaming and psychological functioning. Since we collected a self-selected sample where different sexes and age groups were not represented equally, our findings are only preliminary, but may stimulate future research.

First, we examined whether potentially problematic video game use was related to various psychological functioning variables. As can be seen in Table 1 , the results for the zero-order correlations were similar to those for the partial correlations in which we controlled for sex and age.

A medium-sized positive relation to the potentially problematic use of video games emerged for the presence of psychological symptoms including depression, anxiety, and hostility.

Furthermore, several coping strategies were differentially associated with the potentially problematic use of video games: Self-blame and behavioral disengagement showed the strongest positive relations to potentially problematic video game use, followed by denial, acceptance, substance use, self-distraction, and venting.

Planning, active coping, and, to a lesser extent, positive reframing were negatively associated with the potentially problematic use of video games. Moreover, the association with potentially problematic video game use was negative for general positive affect and positive and larger in size for general negative affect.

However, potentially problematic video game use was clearly positively associated with the experience of both positive and negative affect while playing. Further, a preference for solitude, shyness, and loneliness were positively correlated with the potentially problematic use of video games.

Lower self-esteem, lower life satisfaction, and, to a lesser extent, poorer perceived social support and lower self-efficacy went along with potentially problematic video game use.

There was an association between fewer offline friends and acquaintances but more online connections with potentially problematic video gaming.

Finally, poorer performance in school i. These results suggest that potentially problematic video gaming goes along with poor psychological functioning and vice versa. Associations between potentially problematic video gaming and psychological functioning.

Table 2 presents the partial correlations, controlling for sex and age. Using video games to distract oneself from stress was clearly connected to a high level of psychological symptoms. Distraction-motivated gamers preferred coping strategies such as self-blame, behavioral disengagement, self-distraction, denial, substance use, venting, and acceptance, but they neglected active coping and planning.

They showed less general positive affect and more negative affect both in general and while playing as well as more positive affect while playing. These gamers further reported low self-esteem and low life satisfaction, loneliness, a preference for solitude, shyness, a lack of self-efficacy and social support, and poor achievement in school.

A similar but somewhat less extreme picture was revealed for gamers who played video games in order to have something to talk about. However, these gamers reported more online connections. Gamers who played video games to improve their real-life abilities also reported more online connections.

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Re: gambling definition solitude summary

Postby Faelmaran В» 25.02.2020

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Re: gambling definition solitude summary

Postby Nikogor В» 25.02.2020

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Re: gambling definition solitude summary

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Postby Akinokora В» 25.02.2020

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Postby Feshura В» 25.02.2020

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Postby Taukree В» 25.02.2020

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Postby Dilkis В» 25.02.2020

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Re: gambling definition solitude summary

Postby Samurisar В» 25.02.2020

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