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Gambling definition

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Gambling definition inaccessible meaning

Postby Kinris В» 13.03.2020

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Gambling is a popular activity among older adults that has potential for growth as the population ages. Benefits have been identified for recreational gamblers those experiencing no gambling-related problems , but there are many social, financial, and health harms affecting quality of life related to gambling across the spectrum of risk levels. Because of their greater numbers, low and moderate risk LMR older adult gamblers are responsible for higher levels of population harm.

Therefore, this study examines outcomes experienced by older adults who participate in gambling at recreational and LMR levels to better understand protective factors that contribute to quality of life.

Guided by activity theory and a modified self-complexity model, we explore how leisure complexity and employment buffer the relationship between gambler type and factors associated with well-being, namely social support both perceived and received and stress.

Data were analyzed using linear regression with moderation, focusing on the interactions of gambling risk level with leisure complexity and employment. Life stress was higher among older adults who worked for pay. Even so, having a job appeared to temper stress levels among LMR gamblers, suggesting the importance of maintaining a diversity of social roles and leisure activities, where possible, to enhance quality of life.

Gambling research usually focuses on harmful activity, but most people who gamble do so recreationally and experience no related harms. For many older adults, recreational gambling is an entertaining social activity and, when undertaken responsibly, can enhance quality of life van der Maas et al.

Conversely, older adults who are problem gamblers experience diminished well-being in the form of poorer mental and physical health, compromised social functioning, and financial difficulties Subramaniam et al.

Between recreational and problem gamblers on the continuum of gambling behaviour are those with low and moderate risk levels Ferris and Wynne These two mid-point groups compromise a relatively small percentage of the population, but because their numbers are greater than those identified as problem gamblers, they are responsible for greater amounts of harm at the population level than problem gamblers.

Browne et al. Although there is a growing literature addressing well-being outcomes for older adult problem gamblers, we know little about how low- and moderate-risk gambling may be linked to quality of life. This study explores the association of recreational and low- to-moderate risk levels of gambling with quality of life among adults age 55 and older. Further, if there are any harms associated with these levels of gambling, we examine potential buffers informed by a leisure and self-complexity lens.

Gambling is a common leisure activity present throughout almost all cultures and time periods McMillen In Canada, gambling was legalized federally in the early s, and amended in to give the provinces exclusive control over regulating gambling products such as slot machines, video lottery terminals, and lotteries Korn As gambling has grown in popularity, stigma associated with illegal gambling and organized crime has diminished.

Clearly, gambling is a widely pursued leisure activity, but it has received limited attention from both leisure and quality of life researchers.

Gambling participation of older adults varies provincially, and the rate is generally lower than the overall adult population. In Ontario, for example, in , In Quebec, Based on the volume of calls by older adults to problem gambling helplines, gambling may be increasing more quickly among older adults in North America than other age groups McKay Gambling participation has the potential to increase further since older adults make up a growing percentage of the population.

Although many people gamble, problem gambling occurs in only a small percentage of the population Canadian Partnership for Responsible Gambling b. Gambling behaviour is typically classified along a continuum as non-problem, low-risk, moderate-risk, and problem gambling. Higher levels of psychological distress, greater financial expenditures, and lower levels of happiness typically occur at the upper end of the continuum Currie et al.

In a systematic review of literature on the prevalence and determinants of problem gambling among older adults, the rate of gambling disorder ranged from 0. Non-problem and problem gamblers differ significantly across all dimensions, including playing patterns, mental health outcomes, and substance disorders, but there is some overlap between low and moderate risk groups on playing frequency and preferred game types, and for mental health and well-being Currie et al. Low-risk gamblers experience very limited problems with few harmful consequences to themselves.

For example, they may occasionally feel guilty about their gambling. Moderate risk gamblers have additional problems related to gambling and more often experience negative outcomes like relationship conflict, spending beyond their limit, and losing track of time Browne et al. For most older adults, gambling is seen as fun activity, an enjoyable day out, and something they can participate in either on their own or as part of a group Hope and Havir Non-problem gamblers generally view going to a casino as a safe and entertaining activity that includes opportunities to socialize, relieve boredom, experience excitement, and win money van der Maas et al.

The social aspect of gambling can be important for older adults. Gambling activities can lead to new social networks and provide an opportunity to reduce social isolation Shaffer For older adults in community and assisted living centres, casino-related outings were identified as the most popular day trip, and bingo as the most popular on-location social activity McNeilly and Burke When compared to older adults who do not gamble, recreational gamblers report better physical and mental health Desai et al.

The authors caution that the mechanism of this relationship is not well understood, and suggest that it may be related to more opportunities for social interaction. Vander Bilt et al. Further, some types of gambling appear to help older adults with memory, concentration, math skills, and hand-eye coordination Shaffer and Korn Despite the positive contributions recreational gambling can make to quality of life, problem and pathological levels of gambling are associated with numerous harms.

Harms can occur through direct effects e. Older adult problem gamblers age 60 and over are more likely to experience social problems, physical health problems, and psychological difficulties than non-problem gamblers Ariyabuddhiphongs ; Erickson et al. Others have noted that social isolation may make older adults vulnerable to higher levels of participation Subramaniam et al.

Older adults also report alcohol and substance dependencies more often McCready et al. Longitudinal research documents the negative impact of problem gambling on social support, family functioning and relationship satisfaction Cowlishaw et al. In addition to health and social harms linked to problem gambling, financial stress can be a critical harm associated with gambling for older adults Ladd et al. These harms are consistent with the taxonomy of harms outlined by Langham and her colleagues Drawing on diverse methodological approaches, dimensions of harm related directly or indirectly to problem gambling were identified as financial, relationship disruption, emotional, physical health, cultural, work performance, and criminal categories Langham et al.

These harms are not limited to problem gamblers, but also affect families, communities, and employers. By extending their focus to gamblers across the full range of gambling risk, the authors identified adults age 55 and older at low and moderate risk levels as responsible for the greatest amount of harm at the population level Browne et al. Those in low and moderate risk categories can cause a greater amount of harm because there are simply more of them.

Only a small minority remain in the at-risk category over a five-year period. Most transitioned to recreational gambling over time, although Until recently the dominant research focus has been on the relatively small percentage of problem gamblers Hancock and Smith , but the findings regarding low and moderate risk gamblers represent a general shift in research focus from prevalence to harm at the population level, and from individuals with severe gambling problems to those at any level of risk.

Further, there has been much less research on non-problem, recreational gamblers despite calls for further investigation to better understand resiliency and protective factors that keep them from progressing toward higher risk levels Abbott et al. We know little about this group, yet they are, by far, the overwhelming majority of older adults who gamble.

Several theories have been advanced to explain leisure participation in later life. Activity theory proposes that by participating in activities, maintaining attitudes enjoyed during middle age, and finding substitutes for activities that can no longer be pursued, older adults will be able to maintain their quality of life.

There is a positive link between activity and life satisfaction such that greater role loss is related to lower life satisfaction Havighurst Being engaged in a number of activities is widely seen as important to aging successfully Adams et al. Further, the social nature of activities is important to consider. Informal social interaction with family, neighbours, and friends, is seen to be especially important to quality of life, whereas formal interactions through groups and organizations, or solitary activities such as watching TV or reading may be less so Lemon et al.

In a critical review of the aging and activity literature, Adams et al. Social activities were seen to provide social integration and support, while physical activities conferred numerous physical and mental health benefits. In particular, for older adults with loneliness, physically active leisure is linked to optimism, positive affect, and life satisfaction Kim et al. Subramaniam et al. Participation in a variety of activities may enhance quality of life because of the link to greater self-complexity.

People vary both in the number and degree of independence or differentiation of these aspects, or roles, in their lives. Higher self-complexity is associated with more varied demands and experiences. When a stressful event occurs, it affects the self-aspect most relevant to the stressor. Greater self-complexity is seen to buffer stressful experiences. In other words, if things are not going well in one area, the overall repercussions are not as strong because there are other roles from which people with more differentiated self-complexity draw their sense of identity.

Under stressful conditions, high self-complexity moderates the impact of stressful situations so that well-being declines less than would be expected for those with low self-complexity Linville Leisure activities can promote the development of self-complexity since leisure is a known source of identity formation and affirmation linked to self-concept and social interaction Mannell and Manske The authors note that although there is an established literature on leisure as a stress coping mechanism e.

They also suggest that communities can play a role by providing opportunities for self-complexity development through meaningful leisure activities.

Older adults can continue enjoying a diverse leisure repertoire providing they remain healthy and are not experiencing disability-related constraints Stalker There is some evidence that leisure-generated complexity among older adults who gamble can enhance quality of life.

Older adults with a wide range of leisure activities and who had ranked gambling as relatively less important were four times less likely to be at risk of problem gambling compared to those who viewed gambling as a central part of their leisure lifestyle Pietrzak et al.

For older adults who pursue multiple leisure activities, gambling is among the least favourite Zaranek and Chapleski , whereas for older adults with limited leisure opportunities, gambling ranks among the highest McNeilly and Burke To summarize, gambling is a common activity among older adults.

Although participation rates are lower than for the overall adult population, greater numbers of older adults are gambling due to population aging. Motivations include factors such as entertainment, socializing, and a pleasant outing, but there are sometimes complex underlying issues such as boredom, isolation, and coping with age-related transitions such as retirement, the death of a spouse, and physical health conditions that limit participation in other activities.

Most older adults who gamble experience no related harms and even some benefits. A small percentage, however, is classified as low risk, moderate risk, or problem gamblers.

Using validated psychological measures, most research to date has focused on problem gamblers who experience the highest amounts of personal, relationship, and financial stress. Recent research indicates that older adult gamblers at low and moderate risk levels are responsible for the greatest amounts of harm since there are simply more people belonging to these risk categories.

Even so, attention to these groups has been limited. Activity theory suggests that for successful aging, older adults need to continue with activities or find substitutes for those pursued when younger.

Gambling may become a substitute for other leisure or work roles as adults become older. The self-complexity model proposes that people who have a greater number of differentiated roles or self-aspects are better able to cope with stressors since their self-identity extends to multiple activities.

For those who gamble, greater self-complexity related to different roles and leisure activities could buffer stressful situations related to low or moderate risk levels and contribute to quality of life.

To date, little research has focused on recreational gamblers to better understand meaningful protective factors linked to well-being and productive aging Tse et al. Since broader harms associated with older adult gamblers are concentrated among the low and moderate risk groups, we view this group as worthy of greater attention. This study seeks to address this gap by comparing quality of life among recreational gamblers to those identified as low and moderate risk gamblers.

Ep 131: Gambling vs Stock Trading / Investing (Similarities / Differences), time: 18:09
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