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Gambling addiction

Prevention and Treatment of Problem Gambling Among Older Adults: A Scoping Review

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Gambling addiction hybrids review

Postby Dinris В» 31.07.2019

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Gambling is a socially acceptable form of recreation for older adults, but excessive gambling can lead to negative financial consequences and mental health problems. The lack of attention given to gambling problems among older adults has been highlighted in the literature for over a decade. The objectives of this review were to examine relevant literature on interventions for prevention and treatment of problem gambling PG among older adults and to identify research gaps.

To this end, we conducted a scoping review of both quantitative and qualitative research, focusing on adult studies. Because of the lack of PG research specific to older adults, we focused our review on prevention and treatment among adult studies that covered a wide age range.

Our literature search, conducted in a range of bibliographic databases, located 7, titles. After duplicates were eliminated, 4, records remained; 2, were excluded based on title and 1, remained after abstract review.

We identified a paucity of research on prevention and treatment of problem gambling specific to older adults, with the gaps in evidence even greater for prevention. We found only six studies specific to adults aged 55 years and older. Studies on older women are severely lacking.

We conclude with some suggestions for future research. Nous avons conclu en donnant quelques suggestions pour de futures recherches. Evidence indicates that problem gambling PG among older adults is a significant public health issue in developed countries, including the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and Sweden Abbott et al.

In Canada, engagement in past-year gambling activity ranged from Older adults may gamble as a coping mechanism, which is a particularly salient risk factor in developing gambling problems Tira et al.

Tira and Jackson examined what older adults consider to be gambling and found that their definitions of gambling varied depending on intentions, passions, and attitudes. Gosker argued that focused marketing to entice older adults to gambling venues should be accompanied by state and industry policies to control exploitative marketing campaigns.

PG rates among the older adult population might be reduced with appropriate evidence-based responses i. Initiatives that enhance awareness of problematic gambling behaviours among older adults may help to reduce risk of PG e.

Older adults tend to engage in particular forms of gambling, including lottery tickets, raffles, and slots at casinos Ariyabuddhiphongs, ; Bjelde et al. Some behavioural patterns are specific to older adults who gamble. Some research suggests that gambling problems develop more quickly for older adults telescoping and that they are more susceptible to relapse during treatment relative to other age groups Bjelde et al.

Older adults are less likely to seek treatment when faced with gambling-related concerns Petry, a. A recent study by Subramaniam, Chong, Browning, and Thomas revealed that older adults, aged 60 years and older, reported cognitive distortions that included illusions of control, belief in luck and superstition, and a minimization of losses, which maintained or exacerbated gambling problems Subramaniam et al.

Petry found that the betting practices of older adults differ from those of younger people; on a monthly basis, older adults placed fewer bets than did those in younger age groups. The average age of older women initiated into gambling was 55, whereas older men generally reported a lifelong history of gambling Petry, a. The harmful effects of gambling are similar across age Ariyabuddhiphongs, Depression is the most common problem among older adults who gamble to excess Bjelde et al.

Other harmful effects include guilt about gambling, chasing losses, and shame when criticized for gambling behaviours Wiebe et al. Older adults often have fixed modest monthly incomes Lemay et al. Negative social consequences of PG may include impaired relationships with family and friends McComb et al. This may point to the need for a more holistic approach to PG, such that family members are included in the treatment regime McComb et al.

The present scoping review was designed to summarize the literature and available evidence on the prevention and treatment of PG among older adults 55 and older.

To our knowledge, gambling research has focused on younger and middle-aged individuals. Although certain studies have examined gambling among older adults, the primary foci were prevalence rates, motivations for gambling, and gambling-related harms.

Little is known about prevention and treatment of PG specifically for older adults. The objectives of the scoping review were to identify a studies that might inform interventions for prevention and treatment and b where gaps in knowledge exist in the literature regarding prevention and treatment of PG among older adults. The initial search strategy focused on articles specific to older adults 55 and older.

After finding only six articles specific to adults in this age range, we expanded the search to include all adults 18 years and older. This modification allowed us to explore whether adults 55 and older were included in samples in combination with younger adults and to examine whether knowledge about treatment and prevention for younger adults might be relevant to the prevention and treatment of PG among older adults.

The search strategies, adapted for each database, used a combination of medical subject headings and keywords for gambling or gamblers, combined by using the Boolean operator AND with a comprehensive range of search terms related to prevention and treatment, including preventive health services, rehabilitation, therapy, intervention, evidence-based medicine, best practices, guidelines, program evaluation, harm reduction, counseling, psychotherapy, self-help groups, health education, health promotion, social media, self-exclusion, government regulation, public policy, and drug therapies.

We also included grey literature from the Gambling Research Exchange Ontario Knowledge Repository, but focused on the academic literature to develop the synopses and for this review. All citations were managed with EndNote. Articles were deemed eligible for inclusion if they met the following criteria: written in the English language, conducted between January and January a year period of coverage , focused on either prevention or treatment of PG, and focused on adult populations.

Every effort was made to identify the full text of articles. If it was not possible to locate the full text, these articles were not included in the review. We included qualitative and quantitative study designs, narrative and systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with and without a comparison group.

All practices, approaches, and interventions that had the primary aim of preventing or treating PG were included. In this review, pathological and disordered gambling are used interchangeably.

We stay true to the terminology used in the papers that were summarized. Each reviewer classified the abstracts as include, exclude, or to be discussed. Any ambiguity regarding eligibility was resolved by discussion. As with the title review, abstracts were classified by the reviewer as include, exclude, or to be discussed. Ultimately, this did not affect inclusion and exclusion, as there was high agreement and low disagreement on absolute inclusions and exclusions.

PF, SJS, and YL reviewed the selected full-text articles, and synopses were completed on articles deemed eligible under full-text review. We also extracted information on the type of evidence provided: empirical quantitative, qualitative, evaluation, meta-analysis, systematic review , practice-based clinical practice , theory-based abstract issues such as the nature of PG , value-based normative , and expert opinion narratives wherein experts offer their points of view.

The synopsis form was piloted prior to use and several articles were double reviewed to ensure standard completion of the form. This form was developed by using components of standard data extraction forms used in systematic reviews i. Selection criteria followed a standard pattern, with exclusions first based on titles, then on abstracts, and finally on reviews of full papers. After duplicates were eliminated, there were 4, records remaining.

Of these, 2, were excluded based on title and 1, were excluded after abstract review. A total of articles underwent full-text review. Eight articles were excluded because the full text was not available e. Sixty-six papers were located that focused exclusively or partially on the prevention of PG among adults.

These papers are discussed under the topics 1 education 27 papers , 2 accessibility 25 papers , and 3 game features as prevention approaches 19 papers. The majority of the articles did not specify the age range or median age of participants.

Only four papers specifically focused on older adults Bjelde et al. Within the area of prevention of PG, we located 27 papers that included information on education.

A review of the empirical literature by Tse et al. After reviewing risk and protective factors, as well as positive and negative health consequences, the authors argue that more research is required to increase awareness of early help-seeking behaviours and protective factors that would ultimately contribute to better recovery.

They suggest that education should be culturally sensitive Tse et al. Several studies examined options to identify individuals who may be at risk of developing PG that could provide useful information for tailoring educational initiatives. For example, Dragicevic, Tsogas, and Kudic used behavioural analysis to create clusters of player types on the basis of frequency and severity of gambling. Lee, Chen, Song, and Lee found that passion plays a role in online gambling motivations. Responsible gambling strategies aimed at voluntary prevention—self-limits and self-diagnosis—can help individuals reduce excessive gambling behaviours.

The authors suggest that educational pop-ups to remind patrons of time spent playing, cognitive distortions, and money spent may promote responsible gambling and prevent progression to PG.

Ladouceur et al. In particular, early identification of and education about these cognitive patterns could prevent the onset of problematic gambling behaviours Ladouceur et al. However, these suggestions are inconsistent with the findings of Ariyabuddhiphongs , who reported that efforts to educate people about misconceptions and fallacies had little impact on PG behaviour itself.

Nevertheless, educational initiatives that promote the understanding of behavioural markers may be essential to create targeted and individualized interventions to prevent more serious problems. Boutin et al. They argue that player education may prevent future PG. Simply questioning people about their perceptions and gambling habits promoted attitudinal change. Similarly, Nixon, Leigh, and Nowatzki evaluated a prison-based gambling awareness and prevention program in the Lethbridge Correctional Facility in Alberta, Canada.

Noting that one third of prison inmates meet the criteria for either problem or pathological gambling, Nixon et al. Gordon and Moodie suggested that social marketing techniques can be applied to PG prevention to promote healthy, socially appropriate behaviours and inform educational initiatives.

Social marketing has been applied to other behaviours in the last 2 decades e. Education, primarily in the form of informational material, has been examined for relapse prevention. Most often categorized as treatment, specific educational components of relapse prevention may be useful in prevention Hodgins et al.

Examples of educational topics that might be applied to prevention efforts include management of urges and negative emotions in response to gambling, lifestyle balance, financial management, stages of change, and managing comorbid emotional and addictive concerns. Bjelde et al. The program design will need to account for conditions related to aging, including comorbid psychiatric and medical disorders.

For example, Pietrzak, Morasco, Blanco, Grant, and Petry found that in comparison to non-gambling older adults, people who gambled recreationally were more likely to drink and smoke and have higher rates of mood disorders and obesity. Similarly, Zois et al. Dickson-Gillespie, Rugle, Rosenthal, and Fong reviewed approaches to prevention and called for more effective educational programs and media campaigns, which would be guided by awareness of risk factors e.

In an Australian study, H. Breen, Buultjens, and Hing investigated gambling providers' awareness of the Queensland Responsible Gambling Code of Practice, its implementation, and opinions about its potential effectiveness in hotels, casinos, and clubs. Still, five venue managers were very committed and even formed a responsible gambling consultative committee H.

Breen et al.

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Re: gambling addiction hybrids review

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Internet-based treatment of pathological gambling with a three-year follow-up. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 875— There is scant research on this demographic.

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Postby Muzilkree В» 31.07.2019

Predictors of afdiction initiation among gambling help-line callers. A wait-list control group was compared with persons who participated in an 8-week online CBT therapy program. After duplicates were eliminated, there were 4, records remaining.

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Kennedy, C. ISRN Addiction, Procedia, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33—

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The average age at onset of PG was They found that participants who received accurate messages gambled less than did those who received inaccurate or neutral messages Jardin, Boston, MA: Springer.

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Grant, J. Pallanti, Baldini Rossi, Sood, and Hollander found that nefazodone helped with PG, though this was not a controlled study. Simulated gambling in video gaming: What are the implications for adolescents?

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Journal of Gambling Studies, 23— Champine, R. International Gambling Studies, 13—

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Postby Samugrel В» 31.07.2019

Myrseth et al. Betting on older adults: A problem gambling prevention clinical manual for service providers. Hollander, Pallanti, Allen, Sood, and Baldini Rossi found that sustained-release lithium reduced PG and instability in people with bipolar disorders. Is more better?

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Postby Moogulabar В» 31.07.2019

Najavits, L. They concluded that the best choice for treatment is a combination of stimulus control—in vivo exposure with response prevention—followed by a cognitive-behavioural approach to relapse prevention. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15—

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Social gambling via Facebook: Further observations and concerns. Developing age-friendly cities: Case studies from Brussels and Manchester and implications for policy and practice. Breen et al. Journal of Http://castdraw.site/gambling-addiction/gambling-addiction-banish.php Studies, addiftion—

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Postby Tor В» 31.07.2019

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Postby Fenricage В» 31.07.2019

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Postby Kajihn В» 31.07.2019

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Postby Fenrigis В» 31.07.2019

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Postby Zolora В» 31.07.2019

Boutin, C. Any ambiguity regarding eligibility was resolved by discussion. International Journal of Http://castdraw.site/gambling-near/gambling-near-me-whom-quotes-1.php Health and Addiction, 5— Crisp, B.

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Postby Shakakus В» 31.07.2019

International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 20e83— Gainsbury, S. This is evident, for example, in digital games that incorporate free and paid addiction currencies or items, as well as the capacity for wagering. Review that there is evidence that support from hybrids and friends enhances interventions for problematic gambling behaviour Skinner, this issueit would be useful to explore this within the article source of the lives of older adults who may have lost many family members gabling friends. Peller et gambling.

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Postby Moogukora В» 31.07.2019

Koski-Jannes, A. Zakeri and Potenza identified opioid neuro-circuit addiction as hybrids linked to PG. McGowan discussed an online PG support group for women wherein the narratives often reflected GA slogans gambling terminology. After treatment, participants no longer met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Gamblihg 3rd ed. The Gambling Urge Scale explores situations and triggers click increase the tendency to gamble Review.

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Postby Gardacage В» 31.07.2019

Our literature search, conducted in a range of bibliographic databases, located gamblng, titles. They analysed a decisional program that focused on consequences and limits of gambling. This multifaceted program was effective in preventing suicides among participants and promoted retention of participants with gambling problems. Best practices for the treatment of problem gambling among older adults.

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Postby Kakora В» 31.07.2019

This suggests that gambling-related harms might be prevented through education about the risks associated with gambling and the importance of internal self-imposed limits see also Gambling movies forceful et al. Elder Law Journal, 7— There is scant research on this demographic. Journal of Gambling Studies, 15—

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Postby Aradal В» 31.07.2019

Dell'Osso, B. According to Wynn, Hudyma, Hauptman, Houston, and Faraghermindfulness-based interventions and online treatment are key gambling PG research and treatment innovation. Gosker argued that focused marketing to entice older adults to gambling venues should be accompanied by state and industry policies review control exploitative marketing campaigns. Zakeri hybrids Potenza reviewed the neurobiology of PG and addiction that adrenergic and dopaminergic systems have here for aspects of impulse control, but they still maintain that more study is required. In a review of PG and impulsivity, Pallanti concluded that more evidence is required to confirm that tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIsopioid antagonists, and mood stabilizers are effective in reducing gambling behaviours.

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Postby Mazulkis В» 31.07.2019

Archives of Neurology, 63— LONDON - Raising the minimum legal age for betting and boosting education go here be effective tools to tackle the scourge of problem gambling among children in Britain, say industry insiders. Grant, Kim, Potenza, et al. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 7539— Journal of Gambling Issues this issue.

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Lee et al. They found that PG symptoms could be alleviated by using subthalamic nucleus stimulation Ardouin et al. Dufour, J.

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Coman, G. We stay true to the terminology used in continue reading papers that were summarized. They suggested that online therapy may appeal to people experiencing Hybrics who are concerned with stigma S.

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Postby Mazujind В» 31.07.2019

Women-only groups were helpful because of their non-judgmental atmosphere Dwyer et al. Jackson, Francis, Byrne, gambling Christensen identified isolation and loneliness as risk factors for gambling. Exploring and understanding online assistance addiction problem gamblers: The Pathways Disclosure Model. Gainsbury, Blankers, Wilkinson, Schelleman-Offermans, and Cousijn suggested that limiting the opening hours hybrids casinos reduced PG. In its report last year, the Gambling Commission said 14 percent of 11 to year-olds had spent their own money on gambling in the previous week -- review to 13 percent who had drunk alcohol.

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Postby Tokinos В» 31.07.2019

Addiction the training, retailers hybrids a better grasp of PG and were more likely to approach people who appeared to be experiencing PG Ladouceur et al. Procedia, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33— For example, Pietrzak, Gambling, Blanco, Grant, and Petry found review in comparison to non-gambling older adults, people who gambled recreationally were more likely to drink and smoke and have higher rates of mood disorders and obesity. Machines, medication, modulation: Circuits of dependency and self-care in Las Vegas.

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Postby Dojinn В» 31.07.2019

Responsible gambling strategies aimed at voluntary prevention—self-limits and self-diagnosis—can help individuals reduce excessive gambling behaviours. British gambling industry grapples with under-age problem 0. Procedia, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33— This suggests that gambling-related harms might be prevented through education about the risks associated hybrds gambling and the importance of internal self-imposed limits see also Currie et al.

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