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Games for 2013 online

Postby Akik В» 30.06.2019

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For many people, the online environment has become a significant arena for everyday living, and researchers are beginning to explore the multifaceted nature of human interaction with the Internet.

The burgeoning global popularity and distinct design features of massively multiplayer online role-playing games MMORPGs have received particular attention, and discourses about the phenomenon suggest both positive and negative impact upon gamer health.

The purpose of this paper was to critically appraise the research literature to determine if playing MMORPGs impacts upon the psychosocial well-being of adolescents and young adults. Initial searches were conducted on nine databases spanning the years to using key words, such as online gaming, internet gaming, psychosocial, and well-being, which, in addition to hand searching, identified six studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review.

All six studies strongly associated MMORPG playing with helpful and harmful impact to the psychosocial well-being of the populations under study; however due to the methodologies employed, only tentative conclusions may be drawn. Since both helpful and harmful effects were reported, further multidisciplinary research is recommended to specifically explore the clinical implications and therapeutic potentialities of this modern, growing phenomenon.

There can be little doubt that the use of the Internet has become a significant aspect of modern living, bringing benefits to users in terms of access to information and flexibility of communication.

Even so, certain aspects of Internet use are beginning to come under increasing scrutiny. Recently, the term Problematic Internet Use has been used to describe a syndrome of cognitive and behavioural symptoms that result in a wide range of negative consequences, including physical harm and psychosocial adversities [ 1 — 3 ]. Indeed there is a body of opinion suggesting that the term internet addiction should be included in the forthcoming fifth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders [ 4 ].

However, research suggests that individuals do not develop problems with the Internet in and of itself, but rather with the various activities it enables [ 5 — 7 ]. Of particular interest are those activities which involve online community interaction, and questions have been raised about the ability of these applications to influence behaviour and induce or support pathological thinking [ 9 ].

Online gaming is one such activity and is the latest iteration of the well-established leisure occupation of video and computer gaming. It has become a significant global phenomenon, with one source estimating that there are more than million online gamers worldwide [ 10 ] and other statistics estimating that one in four internet users access sites that offer gaming [ 11 ]. Indeed, market research indicates that the average number of hours spent each week on online gaming is increasing, with 12—14 year olds spending the most time on these games [ 12 ].

An online game is a digital game that utilises a live network connection in order to be played and is usually done through a games console, a portable gaming device, or a personal computer [ 13 ]. The most popular genre or type of online game that of massively multiplayer online role-playing games MMORPGs and the small amount of research exploring online gaming has tended to focus on this genre.

MMORPGs allow gamers to create their own avatar to explore and play with others from across the globe in self-contained, persistent, and immersive online worlds. By design, these games run in real time are highly social and competitive in nature, and call for a high level of commitment and cooperation amongst game users [ 19 ]. Consequently there are growing concerns that the significant requirements of playing MMORPGs may facilitate compulsive or addictive use.

It has been reported that in order to create more time for computer games, players will neglect sleep, diet, hobbies, exercise, and socialising [ 20 ] and that there is evidence to associate poor decision making [ 21 ], depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation with excessive digital gaming [ 22 ]. However, it should be noted that studies have also reported that users are deriving a great deal of satisfaction and benefit from engaging in these games [ 23 — 26 ].

Clearly a heterogeneous clinical picture is beginning to emerge of how online gaming is impacting the psychosocial well-being of gamers. Moreover, since playing MMORPGs is becoming an increasingly significant occupation of leisure for many adolescents and young adults, the aim of this critical review is to examine the published literature and to critically appraise the evidence to determine the impact, if any, of playing MMORPGs upon the psychosocial well-being of adolescents, emerging adults, and young adults.

The term online gaming along with the alternatives internet gaming, computer gaming, and MMORPG were searched concurrently with mental health along with the alternatives psychosocial, well-being, and health status. All primary research study designs in the English language were considered; however, studies were required to have a number of further features in order to be included in the review.

Secondly, studies needed to focus on one or more specific aspects of psychosocial well-being by including a psychosocial outcome measure. In the following review, these groupings are together taken to be encompassed by the age range of 10—30 years old. Again it was very common to read articles that included vast age ranges in participants, and it was impossible to isolate particular groups from the data.

As might be expected, in line with the emerging nature of this area of study, researchers have engaged with this phenomenon by using a variety of different terms when describing online gaming such as MMORPG playing; however, very few studies carry clear, explicit definitions and descriptions of both the gaming and the gamers under study [ 18 ].

Furthermore, it would seem that difficulties exist in the classification of this phenomenon in the literature, which has provided little agreement as to how online gaming should be conceptualised. Four additional articles were identified through hand searching reference lists, and as a result, a total of six articles were reviewed.

The study of the psychosocial components of online gaming has a small but growing evidence base in the recent literature; however, studies investigating the psychosocial impact of this phenomenon are scarce. However, as Charlton and Danforth [ 29 ] have pointed out, in terms of online gaming, of which MMORPG playing is but one manifestation, high engagement could easily be mistaken for addiction.

However, as Ferguson et al. In this review, a total of six studies were included [ 31 — 36 ] and were appraised using the McMaster University School of Rehabilitation Science quantitative [ 37 ] and qualitative [ 38 ] review forms. All of the reviewed studies examined the phenomenon of MMORPG playing in relation to the psychosocial well-being of adolescents and young adults.

Justification for each study, including literature reviews, was provided however due to the exploratory nature of this area of research; each study had differing points of focus. Smyth [ 31 ] examined the effects of MMORPGs against other game types in terms of well-being, sleep, socialization, and academic work, whereas Frostling-Henningsson [ 32 ] sought to understand motivations for engaging in online gaming.

Similarly, the studies by Kwon et al. Lemola et al. Study designs have varying levels of rigour [ 39 ], and although only six studies were reviewed, when they are taken together a picture of both range and balance emerges.

Five of the reviewed studies employed quantitative methodologies with the sixth utilising qualitative means. Alternatively, Smyth [ 31 ] conducted a prospective randomised trial in which participants were randomly assigned to different groups, thereby limiting the potential for bias or the influence of confounding variables [ 41 ]. In contrast, Frostling-Henningsson [ 32 ] used a mix of qualitative methods including observation, researcher introspection, and unstructured interviews and adopted a phenomenological approach.

These remaining two studies can be, and often are, conceptualised as respectively inhabiting the levels above and below the other studies in the traditional hierarchy of evidence [ 42 ]. Ethical approval is crucial in safeguarding the rights and interests of all concerned. Not only are researchers obliged to consider the wider impact of their research [ 43 ], but they should also indicate which particular measures were undertaken to ensure this is so [ 44 ]. All five quantitative studies described ethics procedures, such as approval from university ethics committees [ 31 , 35 ] or school administrators, passive consent from parents, and assured participants of confidentiality [ 34 , 36 ].

Holtz and Appel [ 33 ] indicate that participation in their study was voluntary, anonymous, and included informed consent. Only one study [ 32 ] omitted comment regarding ethics procedures. This may be due to the difficulties arising from the emergent nature of qualitative research in clearly outlining what the study will entail, and certainly the level of detail that is required to substantiate and situate qualitative research claims can compromise participant anonymity and confidentiality [ 45 ].

Each study identified and recruited participants in a variety of ways; however, since the sampling strategy influences the external validity of the studies, the rigour and appropriateness of the methods used should be examined [ 45 ]. With one exception [ 31 ], all of the studies in this review utilised incidental sampling methods to access volunteer participants. This method is often used when a population is difficult to identify, the topic of study is controversial, or because of time and opportunity constraints.

However, the weakness of this method is that there is no guarantee that it is a representative sample and as a consequence, the external validity of these results is weakened [ 46 ]. Three studies [ 33 , 34 , 36 ] accessed their participants through local secondary school populations, whilst all of the participants in the study by Smyth [ 31 ] were local university students, although it remains unclear how they were recruited.

In a somewhat similar fashion, Frostling-Henningsson [ 32 ] visited two different gaming centres in Stockholm and engaged participants face to face as the opportunities arose. On this occasion, however, the sampling technique is purposive and is entirely appropriate, given the aims and design of the study to explore participant experience of a particular phenomena. Sampling error remains a relevant question, with only two studies having samples of more than two hundred and fifty participants [ 34 , 35 ].

Furthermore, error within the sample is of particular concern in the study by Lemola et al. Moreover, the study by Kwon et al.

The strength of the psychometric properties of the measures adds significant weight to the results obtained. In contrast, the remaining quantitative studies [ 31 , 33 , 35 ] modified and adapted existing measures or developed their own to meet their particular research needs. In these instances, the data are not well supported by the rigour of standardised assessments, which are both reliable and valid for the particular population under study.

Frostling-Henningsson [ 32 ], due to the qualitative nature of the study, tape recorded the interviews and transcribed two-thirds of these verbatim.

None of the studies reported if those who administered the measures had the necessary training to do so [ 47 ]. Of the six studies under review, only one incorporated active intervention [ 31 ], whereby one hundred participants 73 males and 27 females , all of whom were attending North American University, aged 18—20, were randomly allocated into four groups of twenty-five, with each group assigned to only play a specific genre of game for a period of one month, thereby isolating MMORPGs from other game types.

The intervention required them to play their assigned game for a minimum of one hour per week at home. All necessary equipment was provided without cost to the participants, and whilst this allows for the study of the phenomena under experimental conditions for a finite period of time, it is questionable if one month is sufficient. The remaining studies did not incorporate any active intervention, choosing instead to gather information from participants in a single defined moment of time.

Holtz and Appel [ 33 ] administered their questionnaire during the summer to pupils in Austrian schools males and females aged 10—14 under the supervision of a research assistant and a class teacher. Kwon et al. Again, Li et al. In contrast, Lemola et al. In a similar fashion, Frostling-Henningsson [ 32 ] conducted unstructured interviews and observations during the winter at two gaming centres in Stockholm with 23 gamers aged between 12 and 26 years old 19 males and 4 females.

In all the studies, participants were familiar and comfortable with the study environment home, school, gaming centre , and it may be argued that this could increase the veracity of the responses; yet for the participants completing questionnaires under the supervision of class teachers, in the presence of that existing power dynamic, arguments for the Hawthorne effect could be made [ 48 ].

Moreover, although quick information was generated in some cases, participants were required to exercise significant recall ability which can compromise the accuracy of the data. However, an interesting contrast emerged between two studies, one of which was conducted throughout the Scandinavian winter [ 32 ] with the other [ 33 ] taking place during an Alpine summer.

Frostling-Henningsson [ 32 ] reported largely positive outcomes for study participants who played MMORPGs, whereas Holtz and Appel [ 33 ] identified mostly negative associations for the same phenomena. Data analysis involves the application of statistical procedures to ultimately arrive at a unified statement concerning the research problem or question [ 49 ].

To that end, Holtz and Appel [ 33 ] initially used factor analysis to confirm a good model fit of three separate Internet elements, namely, information, communication, and gaming. Binary logistic regression was subsequently used, so that the independent variable online gaming could be used to predict the dichotomous dependent variable internalising and externalising problem behaviour. On the other hand, Lemola et al. These are regarded as comprehensive and appropriate statistical techniques.

In a similar way, Kwon et al. Li et al. Smyth [ 31 ] evaluated differences between experimental groups at one-month followup using analyses of variance and an omnibus F -test. According to Polgar and Thomas [ 46 ], this is an appropriate technique as the study was seeking to differentiate between four independent groups that were randomly assigned requiring a suitable parametric test.

Since the author and the researcher are one and the same person, an independent secondary source of analysis would have strengthened the study. Furthermore, alongside that idea, their results indicate that pathological Internet gaming was more highly correlated with parental rather than peer relationships and was significantly associated with parental hostility and parental supervision both indicating that external stressors are also important.

In a similar fashion, the study by Li et al. For adolescents and emerging adults in particular, who remain engaged in the processes of self-exploration and development, this is a salient point. Although Lemola et al. Not surprisingly, daytime sleepiness was also significantly related to higher depressive symptom scores. This study suggests that late night playing and night time playing are risk factors for negative health outcomes from MMORPG playing.

Holtz and Appel [ 33 ] however identified a statistically significant association between online gaming and internalising problems, such as social withdrawal, anxiety, and depression , which they did not find to be present for other Internet applications. Helpfully, the study by Smyth [ 31 ] revealed a number of statistically significant differences between groups of gamers. The MMORPG group reported playing more hours than control groups , experiencing worse overall health , poorer sleep quality , and that game play had interfered with real-life socialising and academic work both to a greater extent.

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Re: games for 2013 online

Postby Tozil В» 30.06.2019

Law, J. Initial searches were conducted on nine databases spanning the years to using key words, such as online 20133, internet gaming, psychosocial, online games free well-being, which, in addition to hand searching, identified six studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. There can be little doubt that the use of the Internet has become a significant aspect of modern living, bringing benefits to users in terms of access to information and flexibility of communication.

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Re: games for 2013 online

Postby Kigarn В» 30.06.2019

Pope and N. Law, J. Darkfall Unholy Wars. For adolescents and emerging adults in particular, who remain engaged in the processes of self-exploration and development, this is a salient point. Binary logistic regression was subsequently used, so that the independent variable temple nj games gift gaming could be used to predict the dichotomous dependent variable internalising and externalising problem behaviour.

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Re: games for 2013 online

Postby Kazikinos В» 30.06.2019

Results Kwon et al. Berg and R. All primary research study designs in the English language were considered; however, studies were required to have a number of further features in order to be included in the http://castdraw.site/gambling-addiction/gambling-addiction-vice.php.

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Re: games for 2013 online

Postby Dara В» 30.06.2019

Valkenburg, and J. Study designs have varying levels of rigour [ 39 ], and although only six studies were reviewed, when they are taken together a picture of for range and balance emerges. However, as Charlton and Danforth [ 29 ] have pointed out, in terms of online games, of which MMORPG playing is but one manifestation, high engagement could easily be mistaken for addiction. All 2013 equipment online provided without cost to the participants, and whilst this allows for the study of the phenomena under experimental conditions for onlien finite period of time, it is questionable if one month is sufficient. Tickle-Degnen and G.

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Re: games for 2013 online

Postby Taunos В» 30.06.2019

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Re: games for 2013 online

Postby Feshicage В» 30.06.2019

Games has become a significant global phenomenon, with one source estimating that there are more than million online gamers worldwide [ 10 ] and other statistics estimating that one 2013 four internet users access sites that offer gaming [ 11 ]. However, research suggests that individuals do online develop problems with the Internet in and of itself, but rather with 2103 various activities it enables [ 5 — 7 ]. read more and S.

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Re: games for 2013 online

Postby Golar В» 30.06.2019

View at: Google Scholar J. Pawlikowski and M. Data analysis involves the application of statistical procedures to ultimately arrive at a unified statement concerning the research problem or question [ 49 ]. Metin 2.

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Re: games for 2013 online

Postby Tushura В» 30.06.2019

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Re: games for 2013 online

Postby Nijora В» 30.06.2019

Even so, certain aspects of Internet use are beginning to come under increasing scrutiny. In contrast, the games by Frostling-Henningsson 2013 32 ] furnishes and enriches understanding through experientially situated data [ online ], while the cross-sectional studies [ 33 — 36 ] further broaden the horizons of this research area by exploring a slightly larger number of participants in a greater for of contexts. Discussion and Recommendations The aim of this systematic review was to examine the literature and critically appraise the evidence to ascertain if playing MMORPGs influenced the psychosocial well-being of adolescents and young adults. Results forceful gambling movies Discussion 3. Emil Chronicle Online.

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