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2017

Playing the pokies: life, whether terrible or beautiful, deferred in the gaming room

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Gambling addiction melody 2017

Postby Mekora В» 30.12.2018

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Australia is unique in the world for the widespread availability of electronic gambling machines EGMs, or 'pokies' in local community hotels and clubs.

In most other countries, high-intensity forms of gambling are largely confined to casinos, meaning people who gamble must make a deliberate effort to visit these venues. While gambling consumption is affected by a range of factors, including those at the individual level such as life experiences and stressors , place and social context also play a substantial role in determining the use of available gambling opportunities.

This report will explore the role of social and environmental factors in influencing EGM use in local hotels and clubs. It will show how availability and, in some cases, saturation of gambling venues influences EGM use, and how, in disadvantaged areas, the problem is compounded by a lack of alternative social spaces.

It will also show how gambling-related harm can be significantly magnified and intensified in areas already experiencing socio-economic stress, when compared with less disadvantaged areas. The report presents findings of an exploratory place-based study of two geographical areas, each comprising a six-suburb cluster.

The study investigates a social phenomenon that has not yet been well explored; that is, the relationship between place, social circumstances, gambling and harm. The final stage of analysis involved the triangulation of methods to test the validity of findings between the study methods.

Participants across both study areas reported substantial financial, health, relationship and emotional harms from frequent gambling. Many participants reported that they inadvertently ended up at gambling venues when they were undertaking routine daily activities, such as attending their children's sporting events.

It is apparent both through researcher observations and reports from people who gambled and venue professionals in both sites that EGM operators seek to increase the crossover between the use of non-gambling facilities in venues, such as sporting facilities, the bistro and bar, and the EGM area see section 4. Participants frequently reported using EGMs in venues that they had initially attended for other purposes such as dining or socialising. Participants noted that offers such as free coffee and tea provided in the EGM area may also encourage the use of EGMs.

These offers of free or heavily discounted food, beverages and activities were also seen as impacting other non-gambling businesses who may subsequently experience lower demand for their goods and services see section 3.

Most participants were also sceptical about purported benefits provided by EGM operators to the local community, and the data presented see chapter 9 support previous recommendations that subsidising local clubs that derive considerable income through operation of EGMs may not be the most efficient way to fund community activities. Previous research has shown a relationship between people who gamble problematically and social isolation. Trevorrow and Moore found an association between loneliness, social isolation and women's use of electronic gambling machines.

Data from our study see section 5. Some participants who already experienced isolation and loneliness reported they began gambling as a way to address that situation. Others reported that, as a consequence of their harmful gambling behaviour, they were dislocated from their families and social networks. These experiences were magnified and intensified in areas already experiencing considerable social stress and disadvantage.

Participants cited the apparently 'non-threatening' environment of the EGM venue, in which lone attendance is common and where staff seem friendly and welcoming see section 5. It is possible, since participants self-selected to take part in this study, that they may be more likely to have experienced gambling harms than others in the community. However, we found that, even if our participants' gambling harms were more pronounced than usual, both the immediate and legacy effects of gambling harms represented substantial opportunity costs, and imposed real and often enduring costs in both our study sites on people who gamble, their families, communities and society see chapters 5, 6, 7 and 8.

This finding may illuminate research conducted by Markham, Young, and Doran that demonstrated that there is no 'safe' level of EGM use. The harms described by some participants included family breakdown, family violence and other crimes, mental illness and suicide. All participants who gambled reported financial harms, with some describing going without meals, struggling to make mortgage or rental payments, house repossession and homelessness section 6. The findings of this report highlight the need for further consideration of EGM licensing and regulation, such as the location and number of community-based EGMs and the manner in which they are provided.

This was a perspective expressed by many participants in this study see section 9. New policy settings are also recommended. In section These include:. Community members and families are attracted to gambling venues by a range of heavily promoted, loss-leading, non-gambling activities and facilities including free or subsidised meals and drinks.

The use of these promotions may lead to outcomes that are contrary to venues' Responsible Gambling Codes of Conducts.

Even in the less disadvantaged site, with relatively fewer opportunities to gamble, the nature of high-intensity gambling products in local venues may lead people who gamble there, and their significant others, to experience harm from gambling. Local residents in both sites reported modest benefits and significant harms from the presence of gambling venues in their neighbourhoods. Analysis of clubs' community benefit statements found that benefits claimed by operators can be overstated.

Policies aimed at reducing harm from EGMs should consider the distribution and availability of EGMs in local communities, and the introduction of harm-reduction measures such as universal pre-commitment systems and the restriction of indirect venue promotions.

The authors are grateful to all participants for sharing their experiences and time with us. The authors do not work for, consult to, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this study. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and may not reflect the views of AIFS or the Australian Government.

The authors endorse the Auckland Code of Ethics for Gambling Research and adhere to the best practice principles described in that document. Gambling is recognised as a significant public health and policy issue in Australia. While state governments regulate gambling across their jurisdiction, EGM availability, activity and harm can vary widely at the local level. This suggests that gambling may be entrenching inequality in already disadvantaged areas.

To date there has been relatively limited research into gambling at the local level. Reith and Dobbie , explored the role of the environment and social networks in the development of gambling in Scotland. They argue that qualitative accounts of the social, environmental and political context in which gambling takes place have been lacking. Reith also argues that the policy and regulatory context in which gambling takes place can have a determinant effect on the prevalence and nature of gambling problems.

Australia provides a unique environment for the study of community-based, high-intensity gambling opportunities. In all but one Australian jurisdiction Western Australia , EGMs are widely available in local community hotel and club venues. This current report contributes to building a framework of understanding of the key determinants of EGM gambling, many of which are yet to be properly investigated. By understanding the key determinants of gambling consumption and harm, solutions to address these harms can be developed in a more coordinated way.

It is hoped this study's findings will assist in developing a systematic response to gambling harm in line with, for instance, the responses developed for road transport injury prevention and tobacco control.

This study hypothesises that EGM gambling consumption is influenced by the built environment in which one lives. The social determinants of health 2 describe, in part, how inequalities in outcomes differ across the population.

Often these inequalities appear to be avoidable and are the result of structural or socio-economic inequity. Increasingly, a tendency of some research to focus on individual choices and lifestyle factors, in the context of addictive consumption such as of tobacco, alcohol and gambling, has been criticised for failing to account for significant commercial, social and economic influences on population consumption patterns Kickbusch et al.

To date, little gambling research has reflected the social determinants of health approach. The gambling accessibility literature has gone some way to explaining local EGM venue expenditure patterns by predicting the catchment areas of venues using EGM density, losses, venue size, socio-economic disadvantage and local population to show ecological associations 3 of likely levels of harm.

Further, little research has progressed beyond abstract statistical description to explain high expenditure clusters in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Therefore, the authors of this study sought to qualitatively explore factors underpinning the link between socio-economic disadvantage and gambling consumption.

Understanding this phenomenon, and its effects on people who gamble, and their families and communities, will assist in the development of improved public policy designed to prevent and reduce gambling-related harm. Gambling affects a wide range of domains, including household functioning and relationships, health and wellbeing, productivity and employment and, in more extreme cases, can lead to contact with the criminal justice system, family violence, suicidal ideation and suicide Black et al.

Harms attributable to high-risk gambling at a population level are similar to major alcohol-use disorder, and moderate-risk gambling has a higher burden of harm than moderate alcohol-use disorder Browne et al. It is estimated that for every person who gambles at high-risk levels, on average at least six others are directly affected. For people who gamble at low- and moderate-risk levels, around one and three others, respectively, are affected.

There are also likely economic effects on local communities via the diversion of money to gambling businesses. For example, subsidised food and other social activities drawing on profits generated through EGM operation may disadvantage non-gambling enterprises offering the same services.

There is some debate about the reasons for high levels of gambling accessibility, and high per capita losses in disadvantaged areas. Typically, EGM operators argue that they are meeting demand for their product. An alternative explanation, explored in this study, is that exposure; that is, supply of gambling products, is a key factor for uptake. Such stimulation is likely to lead to a temporary sense of relief and reduced anxiety, but clearly can also lead to and entrench excessive gambling.

This study explores the interaction between EGM supply and demand through the experiences and attitudes of local residents, in particular by concentrating on the experiences of people who gambled, and their significant others, in two selected neighbourhoods. While acknowledging that gambling consumption is a function of individual characteristics, neighbourhood context and macro-level influences, the theoretical basis upon which this study was developed is that populations living in more disadvantaged areas:.

In combination, these factors were hypothesised to contribute to increasing the attractiveness of EGM venues and their promotions. Our aim was to use qualitative data to explore the validity of this hypothesis. This study is grounded in an approach drawing on the social determinants of health. It is focused on two spatially defined communities in Melbourne, selected for their differing EGM gambling availability and consumption and socio-economic characteristics. This study seeks to understand the effects of these differences in the distribution of gambling opportunities between these areas.

The study explores factors that determine the ways in which people live, work and socialise in each site. It explores how the characteristics of this local environment e. The study seeks to understand how exposure to gambling and the social capital community resources and available opportunities , combined with the relative availability of alternative non-gambling recreational facilities, may influence engagement with local gambling opportunities.

These circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels. The social determinants of health are mostly responsible for health inequities - the unfair and avoidable differences in health status seen within and between countries World Health Organization [WHO], ; see www.

The commercial determinants are a subset of this field and describe 'strategies and approaches used by the private sector to promote products and choices that are detrimental to health' Kickbusch et al. This exploratory place-based study investigates gambling consumption in two sites in suburban Melbourne, Australia. Each site comprises a geographic area consisting of six suburb clusters specially developed for the purposes of this study.

Site 1 was selected for high levels of EGM gambling availability and consumption. This area incorporates six suburbs in western Melbourne within the City of Brimbank, an area of Victoria's highest EGM losses, as well as one suburb in the City of Maribyrnong.

Site 2 was selected as it has around-average levels of gambling consumption compared to the rest of Victoria, and is a similar proximity to the city to Site 1, as well as a similar size geographical and population. The Box Hill district comprises part of the only 'dry area' in Victoria, where hotel, bar, club and retail liquor licences have been substantially restricted, and licences must be approved through a poll of local residents conducted by the Victorian Electoral Commission Victorian Commission for Gambling and Liquor Regulation [VCGLR], Given that it is a prerequisite for EGM licence holders to have a liquor licence, this provides a unique environment for a study of this nature.

This arrangement allows for great collective community agency relating to the licensing of unhealthy commodities in Site 2. The study adopted a range of qualitative and quantitative methods. The report uses data obtained from the following components of the study:. The data sources and methods are described in more detail in Appendix A. Appendix B provides study materials.

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Re: gambling addiction melody 2017

Postby Goltilmaran В» 30.12.2018

The study seeks to understand how exposure to gambling and the social capital community resources and available opportunitiescombined with the relative availability of alternative non-gambling recreational gambling, may influence engagement with local gambling opportunities. Melody you kind of have nothing to do, you 2017, 'cause of, you work shift work addiction I guess that's probably something where you get invited to go to the pub and just, you know, start gambling I guess, that's probably part of it. Many described living in poverty. As would be expected for people who gamble and experience related harms, all participants who gambled reported substantial financial losses. I've got one particular client … Nj temple gift games probably visits [Pawnbroker name] once a fortnight.

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Re: gambling addiction melody 2017

Postby Tejinn В» 30.12.2018

For instance, one participant whose marriage had broken down due to gambling had managed to maintain relationships with his extended family and had some ongoing contact with his child. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66 5— If not, I suggest that you talk to a medical professional about your issues and see if counseling could be available to you. The range of alternative social activities in Site 2 described by participants is discussed earlier in this chapter click to see more section 3.

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Re: gambling addiction melody 2017

Postby Kazikree В» 30.12.2018

A spin lasts 2. This is intended continue reading provide context about 'pull' and 'push' factors that may lead local residents into gambling venues. A total of five participants of 44 who gambled across both sites reported the forced sale of their family home due to gambling debts three in Site 1 and two in Site 2 :.

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Re: gambling addiction melody 2017

Postby Kigall В» 30.12.2018

Others reported being isolated from family and friends. Plenty gamboing actions could be taken to reduce the harm done by pokies — if there was the political will to do so. Pokie players tend to be simultaneously mesmerised and alert, as if gambling addiction heavily to be caught in the act. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences.

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Re: gambling addiction melody 2017

Postby Daigis В» 30.12.2018

He twigs to the instruction before it is delivered, raising his hands, palms out, apologetically. Previous research has shown a relationship more info people who gamble problematically and social isolation. The responses of participants are largely reported separately by 2017, given there were very different experiences described. Keogh left home at 17 with stress-induced medical issues, working three jobs in order to support herself. Gambling were melody by some participants as addiction comfortable recreational and dining opportunities:.

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Re: gambling addiction melody 2017

Postby Zujinn В» 30.12.2018

Participants who gambled and their families in both addiction often reported a lack of family and community social support as coexisting with gambling harms. Some participants in Site 1 reported that the long opening hours of EGM venues allowed 2017 to leave the house, and were often the only place in their melodh where they could go at night:. Livingstone highlights melody inadequacy of gambling approach by comparing it with other health responses — for example, gambling card game crossword transparent printable with a contaminated water supply by providing hospitals with antibiotics, rather than treating the water. Problem gambling is an emotional problem that has financial consequences.

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Re: gambling addiction melody 2017

Postby Goltit В» 30.12.2018

The high interest rates attached to credit card debt causes overall indebtedness to escalate even gambling quickly than it might otherwise. Typically, professional participants and participants who gambled suggested gamboing shift work and unemployment tended 2017 increase engagement with gambling. It's a substitute hotel … I would like Box Hill to have gamblong proper hotel, no machines, because then you can sit and talk addiction friends, melody can go out for a counter lunch without worrying about the machines in another room.

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Re: gambling addiction melody 2017

Postby Faumuro В» 30.12.2018

The Responsible Gambling Codes of Conduct indicate melody people who gamble should not be encouraged to gamble for long periods of time. If they female gambler, they could sell themselves for money. Addiction was cross-checked and validated between both authors who frequently discussed the themes to test observations and insights that were emerging from the data. For instance, a single mother reported:. A number of gambling in Site 2 who had previously been stay-at-home parents 2017 returning to work to relieve the source strain of gambling debts on the family.

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Re: gambling addiction melody 2017

Postby Balrajas В» 30.12.2018

Migrant participants in both sites reported that they were unaccustomed to the widespread availability of legal and commercial forms of gambling addiction in Australia and noted the difference between the laws in their country of origin and Australia. A composite score melody computed for each subscale by adding the see more across corresponding items. But once I got smarter on my gambling and opened up about gamblong was going 2017 inside of me, what I was feeling, what I was thinking to my friends and family I felt much lighter and relieved. Many people who were experiencing gambling-related problems reported regularly continuing to gamble until their funds were exhausted:. Anyone who gambles can develop problems if they are not aware of the risks and do not gamble responsibly.

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Re: gambling addiction melody 2017

Postby Faular В» 30.12.2018

When [I] took my son source [sport facility provided at the venue] … it was gambljng … so I'd go in [to the venue] and have a cup of coffee. Oh, for sure. A professional in Site 2 explained how gambling in more advantaged families may have less severe immediate financial consequences:.

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